Types of Arthroscopic Surgeries

An arthroscope is basically an endoscope which is inserted into vital bone joints in a patient’s body for examination and/ or treatment of that particular region. Hence arthroscopic surgery is nothing but a minimally invasive surgical procedure, performed with an endoscope, on any bone joint to examine or treat the damage. There are only two incisions to be made in a joint, one is for the arthroscope and the other is for the surgical instruments.

The most common advantage of arthroscopy over traditional surgeries is that the recovery time is reduced to minimum, and this is achieved because of the small incisions. Sportspersons have the maximum advantage due to this. Earlier arthroscopy was used only for knee surgeries but it is now being used for other joints as well. Let us go through them.

(1) Knee:

Treating knee joint with arthroscopy is the most common method of all as knee is the most important joint in human body. It bears all the weight of a body and is vital for movements. An average incision on knee joints is of about 4mm length and irrigation fluid is inserted through this incision,for arthroscope, into the joint to see the joint area on a video monitor. The treatments done include cruciate ligament repair, cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscus repair,chondroplasty, removal of lose fragments, excision or release of tight structures.

(2) Hip:

A hip is a ball and socket joint. The ball is a part of thigh bone and the socket is a part of pelvis. Arthroscopy on this joint is performed by making 2-3 small incisions of about 1 cm length each. After that a traction device is used to pull the leg in order to open up the hip joint. Surgical instruments are introduced once the exact position of damage is found. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), dysplasia, snapping hip syndromes, synovitis, and hip joint infections are treated with hip arthroscopy. Sometimes,fragments of bones or cartilages that become loose and move around inside the joint are also treated.

(3) Shoulder:

A shoulder joint is made up of three bones, humerus, scapula and clavicle and four tendons help keep the joint in socket. A shoulder is capable of more movement than other joints in a body. Arthroscopy is done through 2-3 incisions and general anaesthesia is given. Arthroscopy on shoulder joint is advisable for rotator cuff repair, treating impingement syndrome and shoulder instability. Also the inflammation or damage on the lining of the joint, damaged biceps tendon, damaged cartilage ring, spur formation, and repetitive dislocation of shoulder are treated nicely. Recovery is faster than other surgeries.

(4) Wrist:

A wrist has a complex internal structure comprising of eight small bones and ligaments to connect them. Recurrent strain injuries are treated with arthroscopy in wrists. Arthroscopy is also performed for treating chronic wrist pain, wrist fractures, ganglion cysts, ligament fractures, and carpal tunnel release.

(5) Spine:

Spinal cord is made up of vertebral discs and may be termed as the headquarters to control our each and every movement. A spinal cord is connected to brain and helps pass the receptive signals throughout the whole body with the help of neurons and this makes it the most sensitive part. A spine is divided into three parts.

(a) Lumbar spine is the bottom five discs of your spine and damage there can give you lower back problems.

(b) Thoracic spine is made up of twelve discs and is the longest portion of your spine. Ribs are connected here to provide support to your vital internal organs.

(c) Cervical spine consists of the top seven discs and helps support your head and neck.

Even a minute damage to your spine can leave you paralysed for the rest of your life. Treating a spine is the most complex of all. However, performing arthroscopy on spine reduces the chances of infection, blood loss and the recovery time after the surgery as compared to other traditional surgical methods. Arthroscopy can healspine issues such as spinal disc herniation, spinal deformity, tumours, general spine trauma and degenerative discs.

(6) Temporomandibular Joint:

The joints connecting a jaw to the skull are called temporomandibular joints and play an important role in chewing food. Arthroscopy for this joint is mainly used for less vital purposes such as to release adhesion to remove debris and inflammatory mediators from the joint. It is not widely used.

Arthroscopy is a trusted and developing surgical method. Uteshiya Medicare provides a wide range of arthroscopic products. Uteshiya Medicare is an orthopaedic implants manufacturer and supplier company and is providing healthcare support since 2013. 

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